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How are you coming with your New Year’s Resolutions?  Or, have you, like many people, just quit resolving to improve yourself in the New Year because of past disappointments?  Maybe you have bought an expensive piece of exercise equipment or joined a gym intending to “get in shape” only to stay on the couch and stuff your face.  You have such good intentions and just can’t understand why you don’t follow through and take the time to take care of yourself.

 How our Brain Responds to Change

What I have described is a very common response to all our good intentions and resolutions.  And, it is a way of responding that is built into the human brain.  To understand how that works, and how to work it to our advantage, we need to understand a little about our brain functioning and how it affects our behavior.

Our basic brain function is to respond to life for survival.  The functions included in this response include, among others, breathing, maintaining blood pressure and circulation, balance and controlling our territory.     Maybe you have never thought of controlling your territory as a basic, instinctive, survival response.  But it is our way of staying safe and keeping things as they are and avoiding the danger of change.

Threats to our Survival

The most basic situation of territoriality may be when someone invades our personal space (comes too close to us).  It is interpreted as a threat and we may back up or push them away or otherwise control our territory.  Other situations that threaten might be when someone cuts us off in traffic, (invading “our” lane) or someone usurps our space in line, or interrupts “our story” and tells the punch line, or takes our seat in the class or church or wherever.

Other situations that create change and therefore might be interpreted as danger, could be a new exercise routine, moving to a new area, a new job, a new supervisor, new people in our territory, new expectations or demands on our time, a new person in the family, etc.  And conditions that are often interpreted as threatening or dangerous are the introduction of new ideas or new concepts.  If they are very much different from those we now hold they threaten our “mental” space and we may experience the same defensive response that we experience when our physical space is threatened and we may, perhaps, Fight or take Flight to maintain our mental space.

Situations that may seem to cause some threat to us and our space cause the survival or stressed response and sometimes a retaliation response. Or, if we are feeling particularly mellow and relaxed, we may logically agree that these are not dangerous situations.  Most often though, our initial response is that of fight or flight.

All of this goes to say that it’s natural to blow off your resolutions and good intentions and stay stuck in current behaviors even if they are contrary to what you want in your life.

Solution to Being Stuck

Fortunately, there is a way to move beyond the stuck place and you have probably already used it.  When you are scared or apprehensive about a new situation (perhaps one of those mentioned above) do you ever imagine what might happen and think about different ways you could act in the situation and rehearsed in your mind how you will maintain your personal control?  Children do this “let’s pretend like” repeatedly as they rehearse being grown up.

The rehearsal of the upcoming event, when one is feeling relaxed and not threatened, creates the experience in memory so that the actual event is not interpreted as a new, threatening, and dangerous condition. It seems more like a natural course of action. The key is, one must imagine positive outcomes to create a positive expectation in memory.  The rehearsal with images of negative outcomes (worry) would create even more stress.  Jose Silva was well aware of this when he created techniques for us to create more positive outcomes in our future.  And he knew these techniques are ever so much more effective when done at the “inner conscious” level of awareness  which we use in the Silva Seminars for goal setting.

So, begin imagining yourself doing those exercises or waving on the one who cuts in front of you in traffic or contemplating a new idea and imagine the most positive outcome you can.  You’ll be amazed at how it affects you.

The Silva Method is a simple and extremely effective way of training the mind to focus at the most effective level on the images that bring success and positive changes and “an adventure to be lived, not an existence to be feared.”

 

Stop Smoking aids are big business, despite their many side effects!  Many factors are driving the desire to stop smoking.  There’s not only the many serious health risks, there is the ever increasing cost and the fact that many areas, including restaurants, some bars and even some cities, have banned public smoking.

When I hear or read about this subject it takes me back to my journey to stop smoking.  That journey began when the U.S. Surgeon General announced that smoking could be hazardous to your health and the warning was placed on cigarette packages.  My husband and I impulsively decided that we would both quit smoking.  Of course, that didn’t last long.  I was sneaking cigarettes at home and my husband was sneaking cigarettes at work.  It wasn’t long before we each caught on to the other and we just gave up.

Fast forward 20 years or so.  We had taken the Silva Mind Control Basic Lecture Series and I was having some successes with the various techniques. Jose Silva, in his genius, had included the Habit Technique in the seminar.  I decided it was time for me to give up smoking, so I started with the principles I had learned.  I made a list of the many reasons this habit was harming me.  Then I made a list of the many reasons the accomplishment of becoming a non-smoker again would be beneficial to me.  Then I began using the famous Silva technique of choosing a date 30 days in the future and programming that on that date I would stop smoking and never again have the desire to smoke.  (I say famous because twice it was described in Ann Lander’s newspaper column to be a sure way of quitting cigarettes.)

During that 30 day time I didn’t consciously work to quit but I did visualize myself, in the special state of mind I learned in the Silva seminar, “acting as if” I were a non-smoker.  Anyone who has ever smoked knows there are many activities and mini-habits involved with being a smoker and I played out those scenarios in my visualizations of being a non-smoker.

I will admit that in the next few weeks after I actually did quit I had an occasional cigarette.  But, I didn’t really enjoy those few and I didn’t lose sight of my goal and before long you couldn’t have paid me to smoke again!

I have had many students through these years of teaching the seminar tell me that the Habit Control technique has been invaluable for them.  And, of course, the technique can be used for any sort of habit or addiction one has the desire to change.

I invite you to come and begin your journey of a future free of cigarettes or any other inconvenient or noxious habit you have.  Contact me about a class in your area.

FEEL YOUR WAY TO SUCCESS

You have read of the importance of creating a detailed description or image of the goal you desire to manifest.  You probably have read about the importance of creating the feelings (based in the heart) in addition to the thoughts (based in the brain) you will have after the goal has manifested.  You may not realize the vital importance of this last step in manifesting your goals.

You are aware, I am sure, of the Law of Attraction, the principle that we attract to us that which we focus upon.  And when we are deliberately focusing upon things we wish to create we surely would want to use the strongest process we can to create.  I recently heard Gregg Braden, scientist, scholar and author, speak about the Heart Math program and their studies showing the power of psychophysiological coherence.

Research by Dr. J. Andrew Armour, one of the early pioneers in neurocardiology,  working with Dr Jeffrey Ardell, and reported in their recent book Neurocardiology, shows that the heart has its own intrinsic nervous system that operates and processes information independently of the brain or nervous system.  Its elaborate circuitry enables it to act independently of the cranial brain – to learn, remember, and even feel and sense.

Other studies were concerned about the electromagnetic energies of the organs of the body.  They found that the heart produces the largest rhythmic electromagnetic field of any of the body’s organs. “The heart’s electrical field is about 60 times greater in amplitude than the electrical activity generated by the brain. This field, measured in the form of an electrocardiogram (ECG), can be detected anywhere on the surface of the body. Furthermore, the magnetic field produced by the heart is more than 5,000 times greater in strength than the field generated by the brain…”

This information has far reaching implications in many areas of study.  As it relates to manifesting our goals, it emphasized to me the importance of creating those feelings in the most coherent way possible.  In our Silva classes I have stressed the need to experience our feelings while in meditation for many years.

One graduate related her story of how she made pages of characteristics of an ideal mate and programmed to attract him.  When she did attract him she found they were not compatible because she had not included the feelings element in her program.  After a period of time she tried again and was successful in attracting a compatible mate with the desirable characteristics.

I would welcome stories from other graduates who have found this helpful.

SECRETS TO ACHIEVING YOUR GOALS

Remember when you first learned your a,b,c’s?  You probably had no idea of all the wonderful ways you would be able to use them; the books you would read, the things you would learn, the words you would write to communicate and the feelings you could express.

In one way, coming to a Silva seminar and learning the Method is like learning the alphabet.  Learning the Silva Method is a lot like learning the language of the mind.  It works because it teaches you how to take control of your own thinking and how to use your mind in powerful and profound ways.  Mind Control, as Jose Silva first named his seminar, is such a desirable ability.  The seminar doesn’t just give you an pleasant experience…it gives you practical tools you can use your whole life to make it all “work” for you.

Many people are knowledgeable about the importance of setting goals.  And they make lists or Vision Boards, or do affirmations and put sticky notes on their mirrors.  And yet, still they don’t achieve their goals.

When we discuss the Silva goal setting technique we go over the importance of thinking about our goal in only a positive way and thinking and speaking as if the desired event has already happened while still dealing with the “reality” of what now is.  And we talk about the importance of creating the feelings we will have when it is completed.  And that our desire has to be congruent with our inner beliefs about our deserving of the goal.  We must rid ourselves of our limiting beliefs regarding the achievement.  Understanding the Law of Attraction and the power of our fears is vital to mastering goal achievement.

If you have questions about the details of any of these points, I would be happy to talk with you about it.  Or, ideally have you in one of our live seminars.  It’s one thing to just intellectually get the information.  It’s infinitely more powerful to experience the information at the deeper, creative level of mind.

YOUR NEW YEAR’S RESOLUTIONS

How are you coming with your New Year’s Resolutions?  Or, have you, like many people, just quit resolving to improve yourself in the New Year because of past disappointments?  Maybe you have bought an expensive piece of exercise equipment or joined a gym intending to “get in shape” only to stay on the couch and stuff your face.  You have such good intentions and just can’t understand why you don’t follow through and take the time to take care of yourself.

What I have described is a very common response to all our good intentions and resolutions.  And, it is a way of responding that is built into the human brain.  To understand how that works, and how to work it to our advantage, we need to understand a little about our brain functioning and how it affects our behavior.

Our basic brain function is to respond to life for survival.  The functions included in this response include, among others, breathing, maintaining blood pressure and circulation, balance and controlling our territory.     Maybe you have never thought of controlling your territory as a basic, instinctive, survival response.  But it is our way of staying safe and keeping things as they are and avoiding the danger of change.

The most basic situation of territoriality may be when someone invades our personal space (comes too close to us).  It is interpreted as a threat and we may back up or push them away or otherwise control our territory.  Other situations that threaten might be when someone cuts us off in traffic, (invading “our” lane) or someone usurps our space in line, or interrupts “our story” and tells the punch line, or takes our seat in the class or church or wherever.

Other situations that create change and therefore might be interpreted as danger, could be a new exercise routine, moving to a new area, a new job, a new supervisor, new people in our territory, new expectations or demands on our time, a new person in the family, etc.  And conditions that are often interpreted as threatening or dangerous are the introduction of new ideas or new concepts.  If they are very much different from those we now hold they threaten our “mental” space and we may experience the same defensive response that we experience when our physical space is threatened and we may, perhaps, Fight or take Flight to maintain our mental space.

Situations that may seem to cause some threat to us and our space cause the survival or stressed response and sometimes a retaliation response. Or, if we are feeling particularly mellow and relaxed, we may logically agree that these are not dangerous situations.  Most often though, our initial response is that of fight or flight.

All of this goes to say that it’s natural to blow off your resolutions and good intentions and stay stuck in current behaviors even if they are contrary to what you want in your life.

Fortunately, there is a way to move beyond the stuck place and you have probably already used it.  When you are scared or apprehensive about a new situation (perhaps one of those mentioned above) do you ever imagine what might happen and think about different ways you could act in the situation and rehearsed in your mind how you will maintain your personal control?  Children do this “let’s pretend like” repeatedly as they rehearse being grown up.

The rehearsal of the upcoming event, when one is feeling relaxed and not threatened, creates the experience in memory so that the actual event is not interpreted as a new, threatening, and dangerous condition. It seems more like a natural course of action. The key is, one must imagine positive outcomes to create a positive expectation in memory.  The rehearsal with images of negative outcomes (worry) would create even more stress.  Jose Silva was well aware of this when he created techniques for us to create more positive outcomes in our future.  And he knew these techniques are ever so much more effective when done at the “inner conscious” level of awareness  which we use in the Silva Seminars for goal setting.

So, begin imagining yourself doing those exercises or waving on the one who cuts in front of you in traffic or contemplating a new idea and imagine the most positive outcome you can.  You’ll be amazed at how it affects you.

The Silva Method is a simple and extremely effective way of training the mind to focus at the most effective level on the images that bring success and positive changes and “an adventure to be lived, not an existence to be feared.”

FOCUS HELPS DREAMS COME TRUE!

There is a funny story that has gone around the internet about the woman who intended to do a simple task early one morning. Before she finished that task, she noticed something else that needed to be done, so, interrupting her first task, she started on the second.  Then, before completing that something else seemed to need attention so she left that and went to the next.  This continued throughout the day and by evening she felt exhausted but couldn’t see that she had accomplished anything.

Did something like this every happen to you, even on a small scale?  Sometimes I find myself starting that trek and have to take control and remind myself to focus and concentrate on one thing at a time. Successful people know the value of focus and it shows in what they accomplish.

Do you know that the average person can only focus their mind on one thing for six to eleven seconds at a time?  So, if you are average, even when you’re thinking about something you choose to think about, something you like to think about, your mind tends to wander every six second.  Take a few minutes now to test yourself. Check to see how long you can remain focused on your current goal.

A wandering mind, if left uncontrolled, can lead to self-doubt, insecurity, heath issues, a lack of drive, poor job performance, and low self-esteem.  Any of these sound familiar?  It’s hard to have a sense of wellbeing and the ability to think clearly when thoughts or feelings are scattered.

Some issues which may contribute to this wandering mind and limit our successes are:

• Regularly having too many things to do and think about.

• A fear of a concept or thing, such as being judged by others or anticipating failure.

• Continuous striving for the elusive and unattainable perfection.

• Allowing past “failures” to influence and limit getting started with your personal plan.

• Unable or unwilling to commit to your personal plan.

• Casting blame on other people or events for a lack of success.

• Choosing anger or other destructive emotions as your primary methods of behavior.

• Denial The failure to recognize or admit to having a personal problem

Jose Silva recognized the importance of focus and the ability of students to concentrate on the task at hand.  He worked with his children on these traits so they could be more successful in school and in life.  The results attracted the attention of neighbors and beyond and the Silva Seminars grew out of the techniques he used.

The key to the success of the Silva Method is that it helps you develop a vibrant, powerful way of thinking, which helps you overcome and adjust limiting beliefs that may have impaired your full potential. As the program progresses, you see the levels of improvement in your abilities to concentrate and sustain a clear, coherent focus.

Think about it; everything you do begins with a thought.  When you have a new goal and you use the same old thought pattern you used in the past, your chances for success are just that, chances.  Success requires that you take a fresh approach to new opportunities.

I have watch students, young and those more mature, who were struggling in the classroom, develop the skills to become top performers after practicing what they learned in the seminars.

I am copying a story my son wrote about the effect the Silva training had on him.  You can well imagine from reading his story below, this is my favorite “success” story.

YOU CAN ACHIEVE WHATEVER YOU BELIEVE!

”My name is Curtis Dearmont.  I graduated from high school in 1981, after a difficult time in school, ranked 115th of 135 in my class.  I had been diagnosed as dyslexic and through the years of poor performance and poor grades I had developed a very poor self-image and I behaved in a self-destructive way.   Right after I graduated from high school my family moved to Oklahoma.  Since I was not planning to go to college I went along.

“I wanted to work for a while and earn some money and have some fun. I got a job as a mail messenger for a large company where my dad worked, but after a year I didn’t find that very satisfying or profitable.  I applied to several universities for admittance, but because of my low SAT scores, I was turned down by all the schools except a small college where we lived.  And they accepted me on probation.

“In my second semester in college my parents asked me if I wanted to go with them to a seminar about learning how to develop more of your potential, The SILVA Method.  I decided to go, and the first day heard that I had the same awareness as the great minds of the world – all I needed to do was learn how to use it.  The lecturer explained that by learning and using the techniques, I could open up many opportunities for myself.  So I began to use the different techniques.

“I didn’t see any dramatic changes right away, but my family could see the change in my attitude and the way I felt about myself. My grades improved and I was accepted at Kent State, majoring in business.  A year and a half later I decided I wanted to be a Doctor of Chiropractic.  I applied and was accepted at Logan Chiropractic College in St. Louis.

“In 1989 I will be a Doctor of Chiropractic.  I have the same conditions, but now I have many new ways to control and use my mind to overcome the problems.  In high school I was a D or C student, but now my accumulative grade point average is 3.6.  Believe me, this end of the scale is a lot more fun.  I work hard, but the SILVA Method showed me that I have the mind and the potential to do whatever I want to do. I use the techniques daily for school and for my personal life and I’m glad my parents asked me to go with them.  I have since sent my girl friend to the seminar and I have educated many of my friends at school about the SILVA Method.  They too have achieved many good things using the techniques.

“This Method seems to take a long time and seems to cost a lot of money, but I believe all young people can benefit by taking it and learning how to make life work well for themselves.  We all have the mind of a genius.  We just need the techniques to use it most effectively.  And I have not seen those techniques taught any place else.
I hope you go and take a friend.  I know you won’t be sorry!”                                                                     Curtis

Curtis did graduate with a Doctorate of Chiropratic in 1989, seventh in his class (!) is married with two sons.  He is chiropractor near Dallas, Texas.

AND YOU CAN ACHIEVE YOUR DREAMS, TOO!

Brain imaging is getting so precise that neuroscientists can almost tell what you are thinking from observing what part of your brain is active.  And, they can determine whether your thoughts have positive or negative effects on your body and health.  Jose Silva discovered this to be true long before the technology for brain imaging was possible.  He used this information to help people focus their thinking in a way to create better health and the positive future they desired.

One of the speakers of the 2010 Silva Conference, “The New Science of Silva” is Dr. Mark Waldman.  Dr. Waldman and his co-author, Dr. Andrew Newberg have written numerous books, the latest being, How God Changes Your Brain.  Their research shows that meditation can change the brain’s structure and functioning by as much as 25 percent and that the Silva techniques and processes are the most effective way to balance your brain and reprogram it for success.  This confirms Jose Silva’s teachings.

Jose Silva also developed techniques for influencing and healing for others, humans and animals, at a distance, through imagination and visualization.  Though the brain imaging research does not yet show that this is possible,  I offer stories, below, that confirm the techniques have been reported as effective, repeatedly.

Those techniques are shared in the Silva Intuition Training classes. Perhaps you would like to participate and conduct your own research.  Check the Schedule for classes.


CREATING A COOPERATIVE PATIENT

Pat is a psychiatrist in a mental hospital.  She reported, “I use the techniques in all areas of my life, but I seem to get the most dramatic results working with difficult mental patients….One particular patient refused to take her medication and was very hostile to me and all the staff.

“I mulled over the situation and decided this was a great opportunity to use the creative visualization goal setting technique.  I imagined what I really wanted.  I ‘saw’ her coming to the nurse and saying, “I’m ready to take my medication now.”

“Within a short period of time she came to the nurse’s station and said “I’ve been acting like a ____ _____.  I’m ready to take my medication now.”  It was a wonderful manifestation for all of us.”

MAN’S LEG WAS SAVED BY DISTANT HEALING

A man was in the hospital with a bad infection in his one remaining leg.  On Sunday morning his family was told the leg would have to be removed on Monday.  On Sunday afternoon a group of Silva students focused their distant healing techniques on the man and his leg.  On Monday morning the doctor told the family that there had been a dramatic change in the leg’s condition and that surgery would not be necessary.


ANIMAL RESPONDS TO PROGRAMMING

“A skunk started coming to our back lawn every night and spraying his scent, which would penetrate the house and was quite disturbing.  My husband said he would take care of the problem by shooting the skunk.  I didn’t want to see the skunk killed and I decided to talk to it, mentally.  I told him that his scent really was a problem for us and if he continued to spray in our yard, he would be shot.  He must have gotten the message because he has not sprayed in our yard since!”

COMFORTING THE DOG FROM A DISTANCE

“When we moved and then had to travel occasionally our dog was placed in a kennel.  He was not happy with being separated and didn’t eat while we were gone. After a few trips with this result, I became very worried about him.  Using the Silva techniques, I began “communicating” with him every day and visualized playing with him and talking with him, just as I did when we were home.  From that time on he always ate well and was in good spirits when we picked him up.”

Relaxation and the ability to manage stress are the first benefits that people experience after taking one of the Silva Method Seminars.  And those are major benefits.  Unmanaged stress creates conditions in our mental functioning and our physical body that are disruptive and destructive to health and can even shorten our lives.  And learning dynamic meditation and “mental housecleaning” to relax the mind and body can be life changing.

I recall the story of the Silva classes that dramatically changed a woman’s life.  I met her, let’s call her Ellen, at a church in the Houston area.  She was a resident at a local mental treatment facility because of her Obsessive Compulsive behavior of compulsive cleaning.  This disrupted her home and family and made life unbearable for all of them.  We talked and she was very interested in my explanation of what I did as a Silva Seminar Instructor.  She asked if she might be allowed to take the classes.  I said I certainly would permit it, if she could get permission from her therapist.

The following weekend Ellen showed up to attend the first weekend of the Series.  She found it very interesting even though she could not stay awake during the meditations. The relaxation techniques were working very well for her! At the close of the second day she assured me she would be back for the second weekend, and sure enough, she was there ready to begin on time.  She was excited about how she was feeling and the progress she felt she was making in her treatment.  Again she was an enthusiastic participant in the exercises, even though she slept through the meditations all weekend.  After receiving her certificate of completion of the classes she assured me she would keep in touch and let me know how she progressed.

Ellen was released from the residential facility to return home two days after completing the Silva classes.  She wrote me letters several times through the years of how, though she was still on medication, she was living a normal life and she and her family were extremely grateful to Jose Silva and the Silva Method training she had received.

Stress Management can truly be life changing!

I have been teaching the Silva Seminars for 23 years now and I constantly learning new information that reinforces what Jose Silva discovered in his research more than 40 years ago.

A few years ago I attend a workshop with Bruce Lipton, Ph.D.    He is a cellular biologist, author and lecturer.  He is the former Associate Professor at the University of Wisconsin’s School of Medicine and Research Fellow at the Stanford School of Medicine.  The literature says “Bruce is a recognized authority in bridging science and spirit.” He has written “The Perception of Change” and his information has certainly influenced my life and the way I teach the Silva seminars.

Bruce was the first to talk about the evidence to show that our genes do not control our health or our behavior.  The phrase, “It runs in the family” refers to inherited tendencies and learned “programs” we acquire, unconsciously, during the first six years or so of our lives to enable us to function in our family and society.  These programs and the abilities and limitations we experience reflect our perceptions of life and the experiences generate the patterns that become our programs.

Most of our behaviors are subconscious reactions to events and we are not even aware of the real reasons we react as we do.  The Director of the Laboratory for Cognitive Psychophysicology at the University of Illinois said, “The fact is, as adults, we spend most of our time subconsciously responding to life rather than consciously creating it.”

And our perception, about ourselves and the world, “controls our biology, directs our behaviors, and profoundly influences our health.”  In other words, “genes don’t turn themselves ‘on’ or ‘off’ causing cancer, arthritis, heart disease, diabetes or any number of other so called, ‘genetically inherited’ maladies, without something signaling them to do so…it comes from outside the gene, not from the inside.”

This information would be of little value except for the awareness that we do have the tools to consciously change the subconscious programming and create the experiences we desire.

Jose Silva, founder of The Silva Method Programs, was aware of our ability to ‘reprogram’ our ‘inner conscious’ states of mind and designed many techniques to enable us to improve our functioning.  A few of those techniques are for: physical and mental relaxation; improving sleep habits and waking up at the time we choose; stopping tension type and migraine headaches; stopping pain and bleeding; recreating (or creating) excellent health; communicating at the ‘subjective’ level; gaining control of our intuition; setting goals at the optimum level for success in finances, relationships, health, happiness and general well being; and any area we desire to focus on.

If this sounds too good to be true, take advantage of our money back guarantee and register today.  I think that when you have completed the seminar you will think it was one of the best decisions you have ever made!


A SILVA SUCCESS STORY FROM A GRADUATE

How to get a job of your dreams and get rid of the heartburn through simple meditation – guaranteed!

I have to say that one of the main objectives that I pursued when I took Silva was to be able to manage my anxiety and find a job. (Besides other objectives like to manage my heartburn without any medicine…)

During the seminar you conducted this wonderful exercise where everybody programmed a goal.

On Dec. 19 I was informed that I won the position.  This position is exactly what I asked for during my meditation in absolutely all the details. Just to mention a few; flex time, on day off every other week, a bonus, vacation time, salary, interaction of the job with my family, HAPPINESS with my husband and my husband happy because my job and all that that demanded from us.

In relation to my patience, the Silva Method gave me the strength to face 1 year 9 months without a job.  With the techniques I was able to find the answer to “What I am doing wrong?”  Without any doubt the meditation helped me to control my anxiety during the very long hiring process. (4 months)

About my heartburn, it simply disappeared.  I went to the doctor to be checked and after an endoscopy he found me much better that 2 years ago and strongly suggested me to not take any more antacids.

These are the two things that I have with ‘concrete’ evidence.  The coincidences, the answers to questions or problems, the quick healing for falls, just to mention a few are part of my day to day experience now.  And I welcome them with happiness each time.

Thank you very much for teaching me the techniques.     PL